Dr. Al Garza

Biblical Scholar

Peer Reviewed

David E Ukpong

July 21st, 2021

Concordia Theological Seminary, Graduate Student

Yes, the paper is worth reading. My reason is that Al Garza’s conclusion that Jesus (ישוע) is Lord (אדון) because He is the LORD (יהוה) is reached after carefully considering trusted manuscripts. Thus, he is not merely speculating but giving a thought provoking opinion based on available facts.

Christopher D Kou

July 21st, 2021

Reformed Theological Seminary, Graduate Student

It is worth the read. It considers the title of Jesus as "lord" from an interesting angle. Though I think the reasoning is a bit backwards as it stands. It can certainly use more expansion.

Andrew Case

July 21st, 2021

Southern Baptist Theological seminary, Graduate Student

Very useful information with good images to explain. It covers an area that has been largely ignored in modern scholarship to my knowledge.

R. Sean Emslie

July 21st, 2021

South African Theological Seminary, Graduate Student

Garza helps to give more context to the use of the Greek word “kurios” in relation to Jesus in the New Testament by his review of several NT passages in Hebrew. He opens up further discussion and study on the relationship between “kurios” in Greek and “Adonai” in Hebrew. The theological implications are important to an understanding of early Christology, especially a high Christology among the earliest Jewish disciples of Jesus in the New Testament documents.

Mardene Carr

July 21st, 2021

Grand Canyon University, Graduate Student

This is worth reading for scholars and theology students - from the freshman to the graduate student. The work is well written and the researcher seems to have done a great deal of research. The format is easy to follow and not so over the top that only certain people can understand. I believe information from this can also be used for Bible Study. Sometimes important background information is missing from some Bible study sessions and this could give the study a boost. Great paper on a topic that if not done right can turn out to be dry and uninteresting. The author did a great job of clarifying the main points without being overly academic and boring.


"According to Jewish tradition, if Psalm 110 refers to David, it was written by a court poet who referred to David, the king, as “my lord” (Hebrew adoni). According to a Christian reading of the text, as reflected in ancient Greek and Syriac manuscripts, the passage referred to Jesus the Messiah, with David referring to Him as “my Lord” (Hebrew adonai). Which tradition more accurately reflects the original Hebrew text? Which group, Jewish or Christian, changed the original vocalization to fit their own theology? In this clear and concise monograph, Dr. Al Garza makes the case for adonai, my Lord, being the original reading, thereby pointing clearly to the divinity of the Messiah. Is he right? Dig in for yourself, weigh the evidence carefully, and make an informed decision".

Dr. Michael L. Brown, author of the 5-volume series Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus.

Peter Rodgers
Fuller Theological Seminary
Peer Review

“This is definitely worth reading by my peers. It alerts us as to the importance of Hebrew MSS of the NT, and also serves to challenge the general consensus that Mark was the earliest gospel, and was used by Matt and Luke. I still hold to that view, but I need to have my way of looking at the Synoptic problem challenged, and this short essay certainly does this!”

“A fine, thought-provoking article!” Private Peer Review

Reviewed and Cataloged at the National Library of Israel. 

"For centuries the Name of God has been debated on how to pronounce it. Many Western scholars and Christians believe it is Yahweh while others in Rabbinic Jewish circles hold to Yehovah. Which is correct? For the first time, Hebrew Rabbinic Jewish sources have been discovered and translated. Some have never been seen or translated from Hebrew. In them, they reveal the secret that has been hidden from the Western world. What will they say regarding the true Name of God and how to pronounce it? The majority of the resources shown in this book have been re-discovered and translated for the first time from Hebrew into English" Order here at Amazon.com